Millions of women spend their young adult years trying their best to practice safe sex. In fact, reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that over half of the female population in the United States uses some form of contraception [1]. Still, CDC estimates that around 26 million STIs occur every year in the U.S alone with chlamydia being the most commonly reported bacterial STI.

Chlamydia is an STI that is often referred to as the ‘silent infection’ because most people who contract it experience little to no symptoms. While anyone who is sexually active is at risk of developing chlamydia, reports note that around 1 in 20 sexually active young women have chlamydia [2]. When the infection goes untreated, it can affect female fertility and result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disorder (PID) which is a common cause of ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain.

See also: Does Chlamydia Cause Long-Term Damage?

Can chlamydia cause infertility in females?

With early detection and the right treatment, a chlamydia infection can be cured. However, if chlamydia goes unnoticed and untreated (which is quite possible without regular sexual health screening and around 70% of women with chlamydia not noticing any symptoms [3]), it can cause PID and infertility.

CDC roughly estimates that 10-15% of women with chlamydia will develop PID; a common cause of ectopic pregnancy and permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissues.

See also: What Happens When you Leave an STD Unchecked?

Ectopic pregnancy

If PID goes untreated and causes scarring in the fallopian tubes, it makes it difficult for the fertilized egg to pass through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterus and can cause an ectopic pregnancy.

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants and grows outside of the uterus rather than attaching to the lining of the uterus. More often than not, an ectopic pregnancy occurs in the fallopian tube and is referred to as a tubal pregnancy. Unfortunately, the pregnancy can’t be saved and can cause serious bleeding if left untreated, according to Mayo Clinic [4].

How likely is it to be infertile from chlamydia?

Both chlamydia and gonorrhea are preventable causes of both PID and infertility. If a chlamydia infection isn’t treated promptly and properly, it’s estimated that 10-15% of women with chlamydia will develop PID [5].

When it comes to keeping an eye on your sexual health and avoiding and potential complications, regular screening is a must. CDC recommends annual chlamydia and gonorrhea screening for all sexually active women younger than 25 and older women with risk factors. This can be done with your doctor or from home with an at-home lab test.

What STD causes infertility in females?

Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the two sexually transmitted diseases that can cause infertility or make pregnancy difficult in females.

Along with potentially causing PID, untreated chlamydia can cause problems during pregnancy, this includes preterm labor, low birth weight, and the passing on of the infection to the newborn. Untreated gonorrhea can also be passed on to a newborn during pregnancy and has also been linked to premature birth and low birth weight.

See also: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: How to Know the Difference

One of the most reliable ways to keep an eye on your sexual health is through regular sexual health screening. This can be done with your doctor or from home with an at-home lab test.

LetsGetChecked’s range of at-home Sexual Health Tests can detect some of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Online results will be available within 2-5 days and our dedicated clinical team will be available to answer any questions you may have throughout the process. Should you test positive, you will receive a call to discuss your results and your treatment options.

You should consider taking a test if:

  • You become sexually active
  • You have had unprotected sex
  • You are experiencing symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection
  • You are entering into a new sexual relationship
  • You have received a notification from a previous partner that they are infected

See also: How do you Check for Chlamydia From Home?


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current Contraceptive Status Among Women Aged 15–49: United States, 2015–2017. Online:
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chlamydia Factsheet. Online:
  3. NHS. Chlamydia. Online:
  4. Mayo Clinic. Ectopic Pregnancy. Online:
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infertility and STDs. Online: